Tips and Tricks
Tips and Tricks
Tips and Tricks
Some cool tips digital camera images:
Phlegra Montes southern tip topography
Image by europeanspaceagency
This colour-coded topographic view of the southernmost portion of Phlegra Montes is based on a digital terrain model of the region, from which the topography of the landscape can be derived. White and red show the highest terrains, and green shows the lowest-lying terrain.
The data were acquired by the High Resolution Stereo Camera on ESA’s Mars Express on 8 October 2014 during orbit 13670. The image is centred on 31ºN / 160ºE. The ground resolution is about 15 m per pixel.
Credit: ESA/DLR/FU Berlin, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
Where expressly stated, images are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO) licence. The user is allowed to reproduce, distribute, adapt, translate and publicly perform it, without explicit permission, provided that the content is accompanied by an acknowledgement that the source is credited as ‘ESA/DLR/FU Berlin’, a direct link to the licence text is provided and that it is clearly indicated if changes were made to the original content. Adaptation/translation/derivatives must be distributed under the same licence terms as this publication.
Image by amadej2008
Stemonitis flavogenita E.Jahn
Typical plates at the end of columellae can be seen also without microscopy at the ends of damaged sporangia (marked by arrows).
Dat.: Aug. 11. 2014
Lat.: 46.36119 Long.: 13.70107
Habitat: old partly overgrown pasture, near mixed wood edge, moderately southeast inclined foot of a mountain; open, dry, sunny place; shallow, skeletal, calcareous ground, exposed to direct rain, average precipitations ~ 3.000 mm/year, average temperature 7-9 deg C, elevation 630 m (2.070 feet), alpine phytogeographical region.
Substratum: north side of a stump of Picea abies (on decorticated part) cut down three years ago.
Place: Lower Trenta valley, between villages Soča and Trenta, upper part of ‘Na melu’ place, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia EC
Comment: Highly distinctive traits of Stemonitis flavogenita are typically zig-zag bent columella with a kind of plate at the end just before the end of sporangia (Ref.:1). It is not gradually tapering toward the end of sporocarp as with other species of genus Stemonitis. It is also distinguished by the presence of membranous expansions in the capillitium. Also agreement of macroscopic properties fit well to literature, so I hope the determination is correct. This observation may be interesting since this species is listed neither in Boletus Informaticus data base, Mycotheca and lichen herbarium (LJU-Li) of Slovenian Forestry Institute nor in official Slovenian fungi checklist.
Sporocarp color rusty, oac719; spores on mass chocolate brown, oac635. Stalks 2.5 to 3 mm long, total length of sporangia 9 mm, all of them were fairly the same length, very closely tufted, their tips blunt. The whole clump had 14 mm in diameter.
Spores finely warted, globose. Dimensions: 8,4 [8,8 ; 9] 9,5 x 8,2 [8,6 ; 8,7] 9,1 microns; Q = 1 [1,0] 1,1; N = 32; C = 95%; Me = 8,9 x 8,7 microns; Qe = 1. Olympus CH20, NEA 100x/1.25, magnification 1.000 x, oil (spores), NEA 10x/0.25, magnification 100x (all other pictures); in water. AmScope MA500 digital camera.
(1) B. Ing, The Myxomycetes of Britain and Ireland,The Richmond Publ. Co.Ltd, (1999), p 199.
(2) S.L.Stephenson and H.Stempen, Myxomycetes, Timber Press Inc.(2000), p 153.
Some cool tips digital camera images:
Printing the past: 3-D archaeology and the first Americans
Image by BLMOregon
Photos were captured at the Pacific Slope Archaeological Laboratory on the Oregon State University Campus in Corvallis, Dec. 13, 2016, to accompany the feature story below: "Printing the past: 3-D archaeology and the first Americans." Article online here (and below): goo.gl/viKEZF
Photo by Matt Christenson, BLM
Story by Toshio Suzuki, BLM
For the first Americans, and the study of them today, it all starts with a point.
A sharp point fastened to a wooden shaft gave the hunter 13,000 years ago a weapon that could single-handedly spear a fish or work in numbers to take down a mammoth.
For a prehistoric human, these points were the difference between life and death. They were hunger-driven, handmade labors of love that took hours to craft using a cacophony of rock-on-rock cracks, thuds and shatters.
They have been called the first American invention, and some archaeologists now think 3-D scanning points can reveal more information about both the technology and the people.
The Pacific Slope Archaeological Laboratory at Oregon State University takes up only a few rooms on the ground floor of Waldo Hall, one of the supposedly haunted buildings on campus.
There are boxes of cultural history everywhere, and floor-to-ceiling wood cabinets with skinny pull-out drawers housing even more assets, but the really good stuff, evidence of the earliest known cultures in North America, lives in an 800-pound gun safe.
Loren Davis, anthropology professor at OSU and director of the lab, thinks 3-D scanning, printing, and publishing can circumvent the old traditions of the field, that artifacts are only to be experienced in museums and only handled by those who have a Ph.D.
“We are reimagining the idea of doing archaeology in a 21st century digital way,” said Davis. “We don’t do it just to make pretty pictures or print in plastic, we mostly want to capture and share it for analysis,” he added.
Nearby in the L-shaped lab, one of his doctoral students is preparing to scan a point that was discovered on Bureau of Land Management public lands in southeast Oregon.
Thousands of points have been unearthed since the 1930s in North America, the first being in eastern New Mexico near a town called Clovis. That name is now known worldwide as representing the continent’s first native people.
More recently, though, other peoples with distinctive points were found elsewhere, and some researchers think it means there was differing technology being made at the same time, if not pre-Clovis.
One such location is the Paisley Caves in southern Oregon ― one of the many archaeologically significant sites managed by the BLM.
The earliest stem point from Paisley Caves was scanned at Davis’ lab and a 3-D PDF was included in a 2012 multi-authored report in the journal Science.
Davis estimates his lab at OSU has scanned as many as 400 points, including others from BLM-managed lands in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Washington.
More scans would mean a bigger database for comparing points and determining what style they are.
“Ideally, we want to get as many artifacts scanned as possible,“ said Davis. “The BLM offers a lot of access to public data ― this is just another way of doing it.”
Transforming a brittle piece of volcanic glass, by hand, into a beautiful and deadly 4-inch-long spear point is a process.
In one hand would be a hard shaping rock, or maybe a thick section of antler, and in the other would be the starter stone, which in addition to igneous could be jasper, chert, or any other chippable rock that creates a hide-puncturing level of sharpness.
After what might be hundreds of controlled strokes and rock rotations, the rough shape of a lance or spear tip would take form. Discarded shards of stone would often result in more points, or other useful tools like scrapers and needles.
Clovis points are distinguished by their length, bifacial leaf shape and middle channels on the bottom called flutes. Eventually the repetitive flaking of the point would stop, and the hunter would use precise pressure points to create the flute on one or each side that likely helped slot the finished product into a spear-like wooden pole.
The hunter was now mobile and ready to roam.
Prior to 3-D scanning, OSU doctoral student Sean Carroll picks up a can of Tinactin, gives it the obligatory shake, and completely covers “one of the oldest technologies in North America” with antifungal spray.
The talc and alcohol from the athlete’s foot remedy helps the software see even the slightest indents in the point, and it rubs right off afterwards.
“I want to scan all the Clovis I can get my hands on,” said Carroll, who came to OSU because of Davis’ 3-D lab and is using the medium as a big part of his dissertation.
Two random items, a power plug adapter and a ball of clay, are placed on each side of the fluted point to give the camera and light projector perspective. The objects create margins that force the structured light patterns to bend and capture more of the point’s surface detail.
Even so, like the hunter rotating the shaping rock, the archaeologist has to rotate the foam square holding the three items. Each scan takes about six seconds.
Carroll and Davis estimate that the learning curve for this process was about 100 hours. One hundred hours of trial and error — and a lot of watching YouTube videos — for a finished product that they think is indisputably worth it.
A completed 3-D scan of a point will have about 40,000 data points per square inch. The measurements are so precise, they can determine the difference between flake marks as thin as a piece of paper.
Davis says no archaeologist with a pair of calipers can come close to measuring the data obtained via 3-D, because simply, “there are some jobs that robots are really good at.”
“If the end game is measurements, well you could spend your whole life with a pair of calipers trying to achieve what we can do in 10 minutes,” said Davis.
Last year, the famous human relative nicknamed Lucy had 3-D scans of her 3.2 million year old bones published in the journal Nature.
In 2015, archaeologists from Harvard University completed a 3-D scan of a winged and human-headed stone bull from Mesopotamia that stands 13 feet high at the Louvre Museum.
And the Smithsonian Institution is currently beta testing a website dedicated to publishing 3-D models from its massive collection, including molds of President Abraham Lincoln’s face and the entire Apollo 11 command module.
All of these new-school efforts are based upon the old-school scientific principles of preservation and promotion.
Rock points, fossils, hieroglyphics — various forms of cultural assets are susceptible to environmental conditions and not guaranteed to be around forever. Three-dimensional scanning is the most accurate way to digitally preserve these items of merit.
Once accurate preservation is done, there are opportunities for promoting not just science, but specific research goals.
In the case of the Lucy bones, scientists hope that crowdsourcing the 3-D data will help get more experts to look at the fossils and prove that the tree-dwelling ape died from a fall.
When it comes to comparing one specific stemmed point to an entire hard drive of scanning data, BLM archaeologist Scott Thomas thinks the work being done at the OSU lab can move archaeology to a new level.
“The 3-D scanning method blows anything we have done out of the water,” said Thomas.
That ability to compare points can lead to insights on how these hunting tools moved over geography, and even expand theories about how native groups learned new technologies.
“It’s going to be a really powerful tool someday — not too far off,” said Thomas.
While long-term data analysis may not be the sexiest form of archaeology, holding a 3-D printed stem point is a pretty cool educational tool.
Davis of OSU has incorporated 3-D prints into his classes and said his students are able to make a tactile connection with artifacts that otherwise are not available.
“The students really enjoy these printed and digital models and often say that they are almost like the real thing,” said Davis.
This spring, Davis is traveling to Magadan, Russia — aka Siberia — to inspect and scan some points that may be linked to Clovis peoples.
The goal in Siberia, of course, is to further expand the 3-D database. He is specifically interested in comparing them to stems from a BLM-managed site he excavated in Idaho called Cooper’s Ferry.
As his student, Carroll, begins to clean up and put the scanned points into their individually labeled ziplocked bags, Davis can’t help but mention how much easier international research could be with 3-D scanning.
“You can share cultural resource info with people in other countries and you don’t have to come visit,” he said, adding that Russia isn’t the easiest country to enter.
“It’s as easy as sending an email,” Carroll agreed.
Davis then mentioned his 11-year-old child and how much of school curriculum these days is web-based as opposed to text-based.
“There’s nothing wrong with books, I’m a huge fan of books, but it’s a different way of learning,” said the archaeology professor.
And with that, he made another point.
— by Toshio Suzuki, firstname.lastname@example.org, @toshjohn
Best places to find 3-D archaeology online:
— Sketchfab.com is one of the biggest databases on the web for 3-D models of cultural assets. Institutions and academics alike are moving priceless treasures to the digital space for all to inspect. Two examples: via the British Museum, a 7.25-ton statue of Ramesses II is available for viewing and free download; and via archaeologist Robert Selden Jr., hundreds of 3-D models are open to the public for study, including several Clovis points from the Blackwater Draw National Historic Site in New Mexico.
— The Smithsonian Institution is bringing the best of American history to a new audience via their 3-D website (3d.si.edu). Amelia Earhart’s flight suit? Check. Native American ceremonial killer whale hat? Check. Face cast of President Abraham Lincoln? Check and check — there are two. And their biggest 3-D scan is still coming: the 184-foot-long space shuttle Discovery.
— Visitors to Africanfossils.org can filter 3-D model searches by hominids, animals and tools, and also by date, from zero to 25 million years ago.
The sleek website, with partners like National Geographic and the National Museums of Kenya, makes it easy to download or share 3-D scans, and each item even comes with a discovery backstory and Google map pinpointing exactly where it was found.
Sony RX1, A User Report
Image by kern.justin
Sony RX1 User Report.
I hesitate to write about gear. Tools are tools and the bitter truth is that a great craftsman rises above his tools to create a masterpiece whereas most of us try to improve our abominations by buying better or faster hammers to hit the same nails at the same awkward angles.
The internet is fairly flooded with reviews of this tiny marvel, and it isn’t my intention to compete with those articles. If you’re looking for a full-scale review of every feature or a down-to-Earth accounting of the RX1’s strengths and weaknesses, I recommend starting here.
Instead, I’d like to provide you with a flavor of how I’ve used the camera over the last six months. In short, this is a user report. To save yourself a few thousand words: I love the thing. As we go through this article, you’ll see this is a purpose built camera. The RX1 is not for everyone, but we will get to that and on the way, I’ll share a handful of images that I made with the camera.
It should be obvious to anyone reading this that I write this independently and have absolutely no relationship with Sony (other than having exchanged a large pile of cash for this camera at a retail outlet).
Before we get to anything else, I want to clear the air about two things: Price and Features
First things first: the price. The 00+ cost of this camera is the elephant in the room and, given I purchased the thing, you may consider me a poor critic. That in mind, I want to offer you three thoughts:
Consumer goods cost what they cost, in the absence of a competitor (the Fuji X100s being the only one worth mention) there is no comparison and you simply have to decide for yourself if you are willing to pay or not.
Normalize the price per sensor area for all 35mm f/2 lens and camera alternatives and you’ll find the RX1 is an amazing value.
You are paying for the ability to take photographs, plain and simple. Ask yourself, “what are these photographs worth to me?”
In my case, #3 is very important. I have used the RX1 to take hundreds of photographs of my family that are immensely important to me. Moreover, I have made photographs (many appearing on this page) that are moving or beautiful and only happened because I had the RX1 in my bag or my pocket. Yes, of course I could have made these or very similar photographs with another camera, but that is immaterial.
35mm by 24mm by 35mm f/2
The killer feature of this camera is simple: it is a wafer of silicon 35mm by 24mm paired to a brilliantly, ridiculously, undeniably sharp, contrasty and bokehlicious 35mm f/2 Carl Zeiss lens. Image quality is king here and all other things take a back seat. This means the following: image quality is as good or better than your DSLR, but battery life, focus speed, and responsiveness are likely not as good as your DSLR. I say likely because, if you have an entry-level DSLR, the RX1 is comparable on these dimensions. If you want to change lenses, if you want an integrated viewfinder, if you want blindingly fast phase-detect autofocus then shoot with a DSLR. If you want the absolute best image quality in the smallest size possible, you’ve got it in the RX1.
While we are on the subject of interchangeable lenses and viewfinders…
I have an interchangeable lens DSLR and I love the thing. It’s basically a medium format camera in a 35mm camera body. It’s a powerhouse and it is the first camera I reach for when the goal is photography. For a long time, however, I’ve found myself in situations where photography was not the first goal, but where I nevertheless wanted to have a camera. I’m around the table with friends or at the park with my son and the DSLR is too big, too bulky, too intimidating. It comes between you and life. In this realm, mirrorless, interchangeable lens cameras seem to be king, but they have a major flaw: they are, for all intents and purposes, just little DSLRs.
As I mentioned above, I have an interchangeable lens system, why would I want another, smaller one? Clearly, I am not alone in feeling this way, as the market has produced a number of what I would call “professional point and shoots.” Here we are talking about the Fuji X100/X100s, Sigma DPm-series and the RX100 and RX1.
Design is about making choices
When the Fuji X100 came out, I was intrigued. Here was a cheap(er), baby Leica M. Quiet, small, unobtrusive. Had I waited to buy until the X100s had come out, perhaps this would be a different report. Perhaps, but probably not. I remember thinking to myself as I was looking at the X100, “I wish there was a digital Rollei 35, something with a fixed 28mm or 35mm lens that would fit in a coat pocket or a small bag.” Now of course, there is.
So, for those of you who said, “I would buy the RX1 if it had interchangeable lenses or an integrated viewfinder or faster autofocus,” I say the following: This is a purpose built camera. You would not want it as an interchangeable system, it can’t compete with DSLR speed. A viewfinder would make the thing bigger and ruin the magic ratio of body to sensor size—further, there is a 3-inch LCD viewfinder on the back! Autofocus is super fast, you just don’t realize it because the bar has been raised impossibly high by ultra-sonic magnet focusing rings on professional DSLR lenses. There’s a fantastic balance at work here between image quality and size—great tools are about the total experience, not about one or the other specification.
In short, design is about making choices. I think Sony has made some good ones with the RX1.
So I’ve just written 1,000 words of a user report without, you know, reporting on use. In many ways the images on the page are my user report. These photographs, more than my words, should give you a flavor of what the RX1 is about. But, for the sake of variety, I intend to tell you a bit about the how and the why of shooting with the RX1.
As a beginning enthusiast, I often sneered at the idea of a snapshot. As I’ve matured, I’ve come to appreciate what a pocket camera and a snapshot can offer. The RX1 is the ultimate photographer’s snapshot camera.
I’ll pause here to properly define snapshot as a photograph taken quickly with a handheld camera.
To quote Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, “Life moves pretty fast. If you don’t stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.” So it is with photography. Beautiful photographs happen at the decisive moment—and to paraphrase Henri Cartier-Bresson further—the world is newly made and falling to pieces every instant. I think it is no coincidence that each revolution in the steady march of photography from the tortuously slow chemistry of tin-type and daguerreotype through 120 and 35mm formats to the hyper-sensitive CMOS of today has engendered new categories and concepts of photography.
Photography is a reflexive, reactionary activity. I see beautiful light or the unusual in an every day event and my reaction is a desire to make a photograph. It’s a bit like breathing and has been since I was a kid.
Rather than sneer at snapshots, nowadays I seek them out; and when I seek them out, I do so with the Sony RX1 in my hand.
How I shoot with the RX1
Despite much bluster from commenters on other reviews as to the price point and the purpose-built nature of this camera (see above), the RX1 is incredibly flexible. Have a peek at some of the linked reviews and you’ll see handheld portraits, long exposures, images taken with off-camera flash, etc.
Yet, I mentioned earlier that I reach for the D800 when photography is the primary goal and so the RX1 has become for me a handheld camera—something I use almost exclusively at f/2 (people, objects, shallow DoF) or f/8 (landscapes in abundant light, abstracts). The Auto-ISO setting allows the camera to choose in the range from ISO 50 and 6400 to reach a proper exposure at a given aperture with a 1/80 s shutter speed. I have found this shutter speed ensures a sharp image every time (although photographers with more jittery grips may wish there was the ability to select a different default shutter speed). This strategy works because the RX1 has a delightfully clicky exposure compensation dial just under your right thumb—allowing for fine adjustment to the camera’s metering decision.
So then, if you find me out with the RX1, you’re likely to see me on aperture priority, f/2 and auto ISO. Indeed, many of the photographs on this page were taken in that mode (including lots of the landscape shots!).
Working within constraints.
The RX1 is a wonderful camera to have when you have to work within constraints. When I say this, I mean it is great for photography within two different classes of constraints: 1) physical constraints of time and space and 2) intellectual/artistic constraints.
To speak to the first, as I said earlier, many of the photographs on this page were made possible by having a camera with me at a time that I otherwise would not have been lugging around a camera. For example, some of the images from the Grand Canyon you see were made in a pinch on my way to a Christmas dinner with my family. I didn’t have the larger camera with me and I just had a minute to make the image. Truth be told, these images could have been made with my cell phone, but that I could wring such great image quality out of something not much larger than my cell phone is just gravy. Be it jacket pocket, small bag, bike bag, saddle bag, even fannie pack—you have space for this camera anywhere you go.
Earlier I alluded to the obtrusiveness of a large camera. If you want to travel lightly and make photographs without announcing your presence, it’s easier to use a smaller camera. Here the RX1 excels. Moreover, the camera’s leaf shutter is virtually silent, so you can snap away without announcing your intention. In every sense, this camera is meant to work within physical constraints.
I cut my photographic teeth on film and I will always have an affection for it. There is a sense that one is playing within the rules when he uses film. That same feeling is here in the RX1. I never thought I’d say this about a camera, but I often like the JPEG images this thing produces more than I like what I can push with a RAW. Don’t get me wrong, for a landscape or a cityscape, the RAW processed carefully is FAR, FAR better than a JPEG.
But when I am taking snapshots or photos of friends and family, I find the JPEGs the camera produces (I’m shooting in RAW + JPEG) so beautiful. The camera’s computer corrects for the lens distortion and provides the perfect balance of contrast and saturation. The JPEG engine can be further tweaked to increase the amount of contrast, saturation or dynamic range optimization (shadow boost) used in writing those files. Add in the ability to rapidly compensate exposure or activate various creative modes and you’ve got this feeling you’re shooting film again. Instant, ultra-sensitive and customizable film.
Pro Tip: Focusing
Almost all cameras come shipped with what I consider to be the worst of the worst focus configurations. Even the Nikon D800 came to my hands set to focus when the shutter button was halfway depressed. This mode will ruin almost any photograph. Why? Because it requires you to perform legerdemain to place the autofocus point, depress the shutter halfway, recompose and press the shutter fully. In addition to the chance of accidentally refocusing after composing or missing the shot—this method absolutely ensures that one must focus before every single photograph. Absolutely impossible for action or portraiture.
Sensibly, most professional or prosumer cameras come with an AF-ON button near where the shooter’s right thumb rests. This separates the task of focusing and exposing, allowing the photographer to quickly focus and to capture the image even if focus is slightly off at the focus point. For portraits, kids, action, etc the camera has to have a hair-trigger. It has to be responsive. Manufacturer’s: stop shipping your cameras with this ham-fisted autofocus arrangement.
Now, the RX1 does not have an AF-ON button, but it does have an AEL button whose function can be changed to “MF/AF Control Hold” in the menu. Further, other buttons on the rear of the camera can also be programmed to toggle between AF and MF modes. What this all means is that you can work around the RX1’s buttons to make it’s focus work like a DSLR’s. (For those of you who are RX1 shooters, set the front switch to MF, the right control wheel button to MF/AF Toggle and the AEL button to MF/AF Control Hold and voila!) The end result is that, when powered on the camera is in manual focus mode, but the autofocus can be activated by pressing AEL, no matter what, however, the shutter is tripped by the shutter release. Want to switch to AF mode? Just push a button and you’re back to the standard modality.
I keep mine in a small, neoprene pouch with a semi-hard LCD cover and a circular polarizing filter on the front—perfect for buttoning up and throwing into a bag on my way out of the house. I have a soft release screwed into the threaded shutter release and a custom, red twill strap to replace the horrible plastic strap Sony provided. I plan to gaffer tape the top and the orange ring around the lens. Who knows, I may find an old Voigtlander optical viewfinder in future as well.
Image by amadej2008
Multiclavula mucida (Pers.) R.H. Petersen, syn.: Lentaria mucida (Pers.) Corner, Clavaria mucida Pers.
Dat.: Oct. 31. 2013
Lat.: 46.38009 Long.: 13.74694
Habitat: Mixed wood, dominant trees Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus ornus, Fraxinus excelsior, Corylus avellana; at the foot of steep mountain slope, southeast oriented terrain, locally almost flat ground consisting of overgrown calcareous scree, rocks and boulders; in shade, partly protected from direct rain by tree canopies, average precipitations ~ 3.000 mm/year, average temperature 7-9 deg C, elevation 625 m (2.050 feet), alpine phytogeographical region.
Substratum: large, dead, water soaked trunk of Picea abies in the last stage of disintegration lying on ground.
Place: Next to the Soča trail between Markov bridge and Trenta village, right bank of river Soča, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia EC
Comments:Most sources consider this species as rare, however in Bovec region it doesn’t seem so. I’ve found it several times. One could consider it as frequently overlooked species partly because it is really small and because its sporocarps are very ephemeral. However, on other side, it usually thrives gregariously in hundreds of sporocarps, which is, because of their white color contrasting to usually darkly colored rotten wood, quite easy to observe. This interesting fungus grows in symbiosis with algae (Coccomyxa) similar to lichens. While in true lichens algae are internal to fungi body, algae associated with Multiclavula mucida grow externally to the fungus on the same substratum. Algae can be observed like a thin layer of something green spreading around fungi sporocarps. M. mucida is also a rare example of symbiosis of a basidiomycete and algae. Vast majority of lichens is an association of ascomycete with algae.
Growing in groups of many fruit bodies; sporocarps up to 4 – 7 mm high and about 0.8 mm in diameter; most sporocarps are single, but some are branched into 2 (5) tips; no distinctive smell; taste slightly bitter; SP faint, whitish.
Measured spores are definitely wider than they should be for M. mucida (measured spores originated from tiny but clear spore pint produced by the sporocarps). All sources I found consistently state that spore width should not exceed 3.0 (3.2) μm. According to the key (Ref.:(4)), only three other Multiclavula species (among 13 treated) fit to the spore dimensions of this observation: M. fossicola, which doesn’t have hypha clamps, M. coronilla, which is terrestrial and M. clara, which is not white but pale orange. Therefore this measured spore width remains a secret to me.
Spores smooth; dimensions: 7.2 (SD = 0.9) x 3.6 (SD = 0.3) μ, Q = 2.0 (SD = 0.16), n = 30. Olympus CH20, NEA 100x/1.25, magnification 1.000 x, oil, in water, congo red. Basidia oblong with narrow, stalk like, base and with clamps; dimensions: 20.1 (SD = 1.9) x 7.0 (SD = 0.9) μ, n = 18. Hypha diameter 3.3 (SD = 0.4) μ, n= 30, with clamps, seems monomitic. NEA 40x/0.65, magnification 400x, in water, congo red. AmScope MA500 digital camera.
Herbarium: Mycotheca and lichen herbarium (LJU-Li) of Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, Ljubljana, Index Herbariorum LJF
(1) J. Breitenbach, F. Kraenzlin, Eds., Fungi of Switzerland, Vol.2. Verlag Mykologia (1986), p 342.
(2) G.J. Krieglsteiner (Hrsg.), Die Grosspilze Baden-Württembergs, Band 2, Ulmer (2000), p 43.
(3) R.H. Petersen, Multiclavula mucida, Bull. New Zealand Dept. Sci. Industr.Res. 236 (1988), p 85, access available at www.mycobank.com .
(4) The key based on R.H. Petersen, Notes on Clavarioid Fungi. VII. Redefinition of the Clavaria vernalis-C. mucida, American Midland Naturalist (1967), 77.1, pp 205-221, modified by A. Rockefeller, J. Hollinger, D.Newman, available at MO.
Check out these tips digital camera images:
Kochi 180 k-tip santoku
Image by Matus Kalisky
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
Iced tea at Georgia’s, version 2
Image by Ed Yourdon
This is an edited version of the original photo, which you can see here. I wanted to reduce the dark shadows on the woman’s pants, so you could see more detail there … but I may have taken away too much of the shadow on her face. I’ll let you be the judge…
This was taken at the deli/bakery (Georgia’s, click here for details) on the southwest corner of 89th & Broadway. This woman was sitting alone, staring into space with a dreamy look on her face, and she would have appeared much more photogenic if I could have moved my camera a little faster and snapped the picture. But then a waiter appeared, bring what turned out to be a glass of ice tea; and he obscured my view of her for a couple moments while he was setting it down. But the time he got out of camera range, she had picked up her cell phone, and was calling someone … perhaps to report on the arrival of her ice tea…
This is an evolving photo-project, which will probably continue throughout the summer of 2008, and perhaps beyond: a random collection of "interesting" people in a broad stretch of the Upper West Side of Manhattan — between 72nd Street and 104th Street, especially along Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue.
I don’t like to intrude on people’s privacy, so I normally use a telephoto lens in order to photograph them while they’re still 50-100 feet away from me; but that means I have to continue focusing my attention on the people and activities half a block away, rather than on what’s right in front of me.
I’ve also learned that, in many cases, the opportunities for an interesting picture are very fleeting — literally a matter of a couple of seconds, before the person(s) in question move on, turn away, or stop doing whatever was interesting. So I’ve learned to keep the camera switched on (which contradicts my traditional urge to conserve battery power), and not worry so much about zooming in for a perfectly-framed picture … after all, once the digital image is uploaded to my computer, it’s pretty trivial to crop out the parts unrelated to the main subject.
For the most part, I’ve deliberately avoided photographing bums, drunks, drunks, and crazy people. There are a few of them around, and they would certainly create some dramatic pictures; but they generally don’t want to be photographed, and I don’t want to feel like I’m taking advantage of them. I’m still looking for opportunities to take some "sympathetic" pictures of such people, which might inspire others to reach out and help them. We’ll see how it goes …
The only other thing I’ve noticed, thus far, is that while there are lots of interesting people to photograph, there are far, far, *far* more people who are *not* so interesting. They’re probably fine people, and they might even be more interesting than the ones I’ve photographed … but there was just nothing memorable about them.
Note: for some reason, this photo was published as part of the illustrations for a Jun 2009 Squidoo blog titled Foot Tattoo Pics www.squidoo.com/foot-tattoo-pics I have no idea why — after all, you can’t even see this woman’s feet! It was also published as part of the illustrations for a Jun 2009 Squidoo blog titled Tattoos of Girls. It was also published in a June 2009 "Istanbul Trails" blog titled "See How Easily You Can Get My Personal Guidance during Your Stay in Istanbul." And it was published in a blog titled "Things to Do During a Heat Wave."
Moving into 2010, the photo was published in a May 25, 2010 blog whose title, when translated from the Italian, is "I suspect betrayal: women spy more than men, with the help of new technologies." It was also published in an Oct 27, 2010 blog titled "Top 5 Location-Based Services [Mashable Awards]." And a tightly-cropped version of the photo was published in a Nov 6, 2010 blog titled "Distraction."
Moving into 2011, the photo was published in a May 17, 2011 PunchCut blog titled "Uncovering Context With Mobile Diary Studies." And it was published in an Oct 6, 2011 Great Cell Cellphone Circumstance pictures blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written here on this Flickr page. It was also published in an Oct 6, 2011 Tolle Crazy Computer blog, with the same caption and detailed notes that I had written here on this Flickr page. And a tightly cropped version of the photo was published in an Oct 20, 2011 blog titled "Social Networking on Mobile Devices Skyrockets." It was also published in a Nov 17, 2011 Getting a Tattoo blog.
Moving into 2012, the photo was published in a Feb 20, 2012 blog titled " [Infographic] More than 50% of Connected Consumers Are Females in Their 40s." It was also published in a Feb 17, 2012 blog titled "Sweet Mobile! Now What? Part 4 — User Context." And a heavily cropped version of the photo (showing only the subject’s hand, smartphone, and glass of iced tea) was published in a Mar 13,2012 blog titled "Social Web sollte auch social seine!" It was also published in a Mar 22, 2012 blog titled "Relationships Trump Google." And it was published in a May 29, 2012 blog titled "The Best Apps to Help you Balance Your Home and Work Life." It was also published in a Jun 15, 2012 blog titled "Direct voordeel, vertrouwen en context bepalen succes van mobile marketing." And it was published in a Jun 20, 2012 blog titled "Nice Advantages Of Mobile Marketing Photos."
Moving into the second half of 2012, the photo was published in a Jul 16, 2012 blog titled "Meaningful Communication in a Disconnected World." It was also published in an Aug 27, 2012 blog titled "Yelp Better: Local Search App To Find Retail Social Enterprises." And it was published in an Oct 16, 2012 blog titled "Best Way to Keep App Users Engaged: Build a Good One." It was also published in a Nov 16, 2012 blog titled "Using Images to Shape Online Identity." And it was published in a Dec 21, 2012 blog titled "僕のブログ更新に利用しているアプリ5選を紹介しましょう！"
Moving into 2013, the photo was published in a Jan 7, 2013 blog titled "The mobile world is maturing fast." It was also published in a Jan 14, 2013 blog titled "Crowdfunding options abound – Search Engine Watch." And it was published in a Jan 16, 2013 blog titled "Forrester: Mobile Commerce to Quadruple to Billion in Next 5 Years," as well as a Jan 16, 2013 Mashable blog titled "7 Ways Mobile Apps Are Driving Revenue for Businesses." It was also published in a Jan 24, 2013 blog titled "2012, el año en que la telefonía comenzó a cambiar." And it was published in an undated (early Feb 2013) Mashable blog titled "Job Recruiters Lack Mobile Edge, Study Says." It was also published in a Feb 12, 2013 blog titled "Amazon, Apple, and yes, Victoria’s Secret dominate the mobile shopping satisfaction ratings," as well as a Feb 12, 2013 blog titled "BYOD Roundup: Top 10 BYOD Tips, 4 BYOD Policy No-Nos and Surprising BYOD Stats." And it was published in a Feb 27, 2013 blog titled "A marketing trend to watch out for: Location-based targeting." It was also published in a Mar 4, 2013 blog titled "These 11 Apps Will Supercharge Your Personal Life," as well as a Mar 7, 2013 blog titled Why retail is moving to live engagement on mobile" and a Mar 7, 2013 blog titled "Ambient Intelligence: Sensing a Future Mobile Revolution." It was also published in an Apr 1, 2013 blog titled "Facebook Offers Brings ‘Shop Now’ and ‘Remind Me’ Options to Mobile," as well as an April 3, 2013 blog titled "7 Reasons Why You Should Be Using Twitter," and an Apr 3, 2013 blog titled "Latest mobile and m-commerce stats." And it was published in a Jul 16, 2013 blog titled "Online customer experience in the post PC age." It was also published in a Sep 24, 2013 blog titled "3 Essentials for Great Mobile SEO." And it was published in a Nov 18, 2013 blog titled "Plugging In and Tuning Out."
Moving into 2014, the photo was published in a Jan 7, 2014 blog titled "Écrire sur smartphones ou tablettes ? La moitié des utilisateurs de Wattpad l’a fait." It was also published in a Feb 23, 2014 blog titled "Why Understanding Your Social Media Audience is Important." And it was published in a May 7, 2014 blog titled "How to convert social media followers into customers." It was also published in a Jul 30, 2014 blog titled "A shocking lack of zen/."
Moving into 2015, the photo was published in an undated (mid-April) blog titled "How to Reduce Data Usage When Browsing the Web on a Smartphone." It was also published in a Mar 18, 2015 blog titled "How to be Connected but not Addicted to Social Media." And it was published in an Apr 20, 2015 blog titled "http://www.bidgroup.org/blog/" It was also published in an undated (late May 2015) blog titled "Should Parents Use Cell Phones to Monitor Teens?"
http://www.silberstudios.tv/ World-renowned and multi-award-winning photographer Chase Jarvis joins Marc again for a second interview, with new camera tips and techniques for amateurs and pros alike. Chase brings us up to speed on his new developments for helping photographers improve their photos. He has just released a new photography book, “The Best Camera”, which accompanies his camera phone app along with a photo-sharing site to form a complete ecosystem. Chase tells us how to “turn an image on its head” for dramatic impact. Watch as he gives invaluable tips for improving your craft with your digital camera.
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Taking Care of Your very Own Digital Camera
Your digital camera is a very expensive and sophisticated piece of equipment. It is a long-term investment and therefore worth protection. This delicate item needs special due care and attention under all circumstances for optimal performance. Though most of us know the importance of taking care of a digital camera and how obvious this is, barely anyone of us actually follows through with this sentiment. Everyone knows that the camera body and lens should be handled with extreme care as they are prone to scratches and very fragile. However there are other care considerations of your digital camera. Read this article to establish how you can take care of your digital camera to provide yourself with optimum performance year round.
The lens is the most significant part of your digital camera; it is the window towards the outside world. A tiny scratch will destroy the whole picture. Hence, care should be taken to keep it clean but do not do this with your
If you have just bought a brand new DSLR Camera or you are planning to buy a new one, the various features and options can be a little confusing. Well, in this video, we show you how the different options like aperture, shutter speed & ISO work and how you can take that perfect photo, with effects like bokeh or blur, with a DSLR.
We are demonstrating this video using a Canon EOS 70D DSLR.
Music: Rock Angel by Joakim Karud
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So it’s 2016 and camera tech is constantly improving – what can you pick up today under 00?
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Canon EOS Rebel T6i
Sony DSC RX-100
Canon EF 50mm Lens
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Some cool tips digital camera images:
Hurricane Ridge is the most easily accessed mountain area within Olympic National Park. In clear weather, fantastic views can be enjoyed throughout the year.
Hurricane Ridge is located 17 miles south of Port Angeles on Hurricane Ridge Road, off Mount Angeles Road (directions).
The road is open throughout summer, and is scheduled to be open daily during the winter months, weather permitting. All vehicles must carry tire chains during the winter season. Make sure to check the status of the road before coming.
A general map and information regarding facilities, picnic areas, camping, and regulations can be found on the park’s Hurricane Ridge brochure (pdf).
Places to Stay:
The nearest campground to Hurricane Ridge is Heart O’ the Hills, 12 miles north of Hurricane Ridge, between Port Angeles and the Ridge. Open year-round, Heart O’ the Hills has 105 campsites in the old-growth forest.
The city of Port Angeles is just 17 miles north. Lodging can be found through the Port Angeles Chamber of Commerce website.
The Hurricane Ridge Visitor Center is a great place to start. Located just before the end of the road, stop here for brochures, maps, snacks, and tips regarding your stay. It is open daily in the summer, and whenever Hurricane Ridge Road is open during the remainder of the year.
Hurricane Ridge has a number of hiking trails, from ridgetop traverses to steep trails that descend to subalpine lakes and valleys. Obstruction Point Road (weather and snow permitting, open from July 4 through October 15), branches off right before the Hurricane Ridge Visitor Center, and provides access to a variety of trails as well.
Hurricane Ridge can be enjoyed throughout the year. During the winter months, snow enthusiasts enjoy the winter scenery, along with snowshoeing, cross-country skiing and sledding. Ranger-guided snowshoe walks are offered on the weekends and are a popular way to explore and learn about the Ridge’s winter environment. Weather permitting, the Hurricane Ridge Winter Sports Club operates two rope tows and a Poma lift.
During the spring, wildflowers cover the ground of the subalpine meadows and blacktail deer are often spotted grazing. Sunrise and sunset on a clear day provide magnificent panoramic views of the park.
Heart O’ the Hills is the closest destination. The Elwha Valley and Deer Park are within a one-hour drive from Hurricane Ridge. Make sure to check the Getting Around page for mileages to and from different park destination. Source: National Park Service
Rockwell International Corporation
Country of Origin:
United States of America
Overall: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)
Aluminum airframe and body with some fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.
The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground; it is not equipped for spaceflight. Although the airframe and flight control elements are like those of the Shuttles flown in space, this vehicle has no propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these features were not needed for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test flight program. Thereafter it was used for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.
Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration
• • •
Quoting from Wikipedia | Space Shuttle Enterprise:
The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle orbiter. It was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform test flights in the atmosphere. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of spaceflight.
Originally, Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight, which would have made it the second space shuttle to fly after Columbia. However, during the construction of Columbia, details of the final design changed, particularly with regard to the weight of the fuselage and wings. Refitting Enterprise for spaceflight would have involved dismantling the orbiter and returning the sections to subcontractors across the country. As this was an expensive proposition, it was determined to be less costly to build Challenger around a body frame (STA-099) that had been created as a test article. Similarly, Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger after the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares instead.
Construction began on the first orbiter on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was originally planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. A write-in campaign by Trekkies to President Gerald Ford asked that the orbiter be named after the Starship Enterprise, featured on the television show Star Trek. Although Ford did not mention the campaign, the president—who during World War II had served on the aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26) that served with USS Enterprise (CV-6)—said that he was "partial to the name" and overrode NASA officials.
The design of OV-101 was not the same as that planned for OV-102, the first flight model; the tail was constructed differently, and it did not have the interfaces to mount OMS pods. A large number of subsystems—ranging from main engines to radar equipment—were not installed on this vehicle, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained. Instead of a thermal protection system, its surface was primarily fiberglass.
In mid-1976, the orbiter was used for ground vibration tests, allowing engineers to compare data from an actual flight vehicle with theoretical models.
On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell’s plant at Palmdale, California. In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek were on hand at the dedication ceremony.
Approach and landing tests (ALT)
Main article: Approach and Landing Tests
While at NASA Dryden, Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle program. The initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests included a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977 atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems were carried out to verify functionality prior to atmospheric flight.
The mated Enterprise/SCA combination was then subjected to five test flights with Enterprise unmanned and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight characteristics of the mated combination. These tests were followed with three test flights with Enterprise manned to test the shuttle flight control systems.
Enterprise underwent five free flights where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed under astronaut control. These tests verified the flight characteristics of the orbiter design and were carried out under several aerodynamic and weight configurations. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation problems were revealed, which had to be addressed before the first orbital launch occurred.
On August 12, 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise flew on its own for the first time.
Preparation for STS-1
Following the ALT program, Enterprise was ferried among several NASA facilities to configure the craft for vibration testing. In June 1979, it was mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters (known as a boilerplate configuration) and tested in a launch configuration at Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A.
With the completion of critical testing, Enterprise was partially disassembled to allow certain components to be reused in other shuttles, then underwent an international tour visiting France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the U.S. states of California, Alabama, and Louisiana (during the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition). It was also used to fit-check the never-used shuttle launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, California. Finally, on November 18, 1985, Enterprise was ferried to Washington, D.C., where it became property of the Smithsonian Institution.
After the Challenger disaster, NASA considered using Enterprise as a replacement. However refitting the shuttle with all of the necessary equipment needed for it to be used in space was considered, but instead it was decided to use spares constructed at the same time as Discovery and Atlantis to build Endeavour.
In 2003, after the breakup of Columbia during re-entry, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted tests at Southwest Research Institute, which used an air gun to shoot foam blocks of similar size, mass and speed to that which struck Columbia at a test structure which mechanically replicated the orbiter wing leading edge. They removed a fiberglass panel from Enterprise’s wing to perform analysis of the material and attached it to the test structure, then shot a foam block at it. While the panel was not broken as a result of the test, the impact was enough to permanently deform a seal. As the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panel on Columbia was 2.5 times weaker, this suggested that the RCC leading edge would have been shattered. Additional tests on the fiberglass were canceled in order not to risk damaging the test apparatus, and a panel from Discovery was tested to determine the effects of the foam on a similarly-aged RCC leading edge. On July 7, 2003, a foam impact test created a hole 41 cm by 42.5 cm (16.1 inches by 16.7 inches) in the protective RCC panel. The tests clearly demonstrated that a foam impact of the type Columbia sustained could seriously breach the protective RCC panels on the wing leading edge.
The board determined that the probable cause of the accident was that the foam impact caused a breach of a reinforced carbon-carbon panel along the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing, allowing hot gases generated during re-entry to enter the wing and cause structural collapse. This caused Columbia to spin out of control, breaking up with the loss of the entire crew.
Enterprise was stored at the Smithsonian’s hangar at Washington Dulles International Airport before it was restored and moved to the newly built Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum‘s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport, where it has been the centerpiece of the space collection. On April 12, 2011, NASA announced that Space Shuttle Discovery, the most traveled orbiter in the fleet, will be added to the collection once the Shuttle fleet is retired. When that happens, Enterprise will be moved to the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City, to a newly constructed hangar adjacent to the museum. In preparation for the anticipated relocation, engineers evaluated the vehicle in early 2010 and determined that it was safe to fly on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft once again.
Waxing Gibbous Moon – Color
Image by MarkGregory007
77% illuminated. April 2, 2012, 9 p.m. MEADE ETX-90, 32mm lens, Sony digital camera.
Colors of the moon
Our eyes cannot see the moon’s true colors. While we normally see mostly shades of gray, there are in fact many subtle color differences. These colors are muted, but they do exist.
The colors are from different chemical elements on the moon’s surface. Blue indicates high amounts of the element Titanium. Red areas have reduced amounts of titanium.
Dried lava beds, craters, and rocks all have subtle color differences that can be brought out with digital photo software such as Adobe Photoshop or Photoshop Elements. To enhance the colors in this photo I used Photoshop Elements and a filter by Topaz Labs.
Moon viewing tips….
The days on either side of first quarter phase of the moon are the best times for lunar observers. Sunlight comes directly from the right, casting long shadows that emphasize the lunar landscape. The rising sun casts the moon’s topography in high relief.
Some of the moon’s features are familiar from Earth such as mountains, plains, and valleys. However, similarities are deceiving. Lunar plains were not created by ancient lakes or oceans, but were formed by lava flows after impacts from asteroids.
The most distinctive feature of lunar topography are craters. Unlike craters of Earth, which are mainly caused by volcanic action, the moon’s craters were mostly formed by the impact of meteors and asteroids billions of years ago.
Without water to erode them, these impacts are still visible. Although there are many impact craters on Earth, most have been eroded away, only detectable by geologic analysis.
Copyright – Mark Mathosian
Some recent tips digital camera auctions on eBay:
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Bright Greens with Pink Blossom Tips – Details Best Viewed Large
Image by Crystal Writer
Click here to View Large.
One of fifty-one new designs I captured from inside one of my real kaleidoscope. This particular scope uses light from the side which reflects through colored glass into pieces of glass and jewels floating in oil. It also has a black bottom and black sides so the light actually illuminates the inside items like neon. I believe this one has some reflection from the yellow surface to the light source.
Two negatives do make a positive!
Image by whatsthatpicture
Using a cameraphone to view negatives …
I’ve been meaning to write this trick up as a mini tutorial, but for now this little example will have to do.
Occassionally I’ll be looking at a negative and want to get a quick feel for what it looks like. In the case of the image here, it was brought in by a visitor to the Who Do You Think You Are? Live show where I was working dating old photographs.
The trick is simple: on your cameraphone (or on most ‘point and shoot’ digital cameras) put the camera in ‘negative’ mode. This is often found in the ‘options’ or ‘effects’ menu. You’ll see that the hand and all background objects (including the white sheet of paper it is being viewed against) now look odd, but the image itself is good enough for viewing.
Sankt Dionys, Saint -Denis, Dionysius, San Dionigi, Dionisio, Dionizy, Dionis, Denis . Esslingen Stadtkirche, market. Markttag – with reflexions – Alta-Lux enhancement by IRFAN, Plug-in.
Image by eagle1effi
former part of Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, Paris – an important bendictine monastery. Saint Fulrad(e) was abbot ( from 750 ) and a counselor of three Frankish rulers: Pepin, Carloman and Charlemagne. He also served as grand- almoner and ambassador. The importance of this person may be bigger then we know up today. Pepin, the Pope Stephan II. and Fulrad were best friends and decided about the future, the political Europe and the Christianization.
market-place, Esslingen, Germany –
this town is an "El Dorado" for markets in every atmosphere and offers traditionally high quality and level during the year.
Garden Days, Asparagus market, flea market, light market, crafts market, Christmas market,
folding bike and bicycle accessories market, Children’s flea market, honey market, Tea and Spices market, . . .
antique market, night lights market, ceramics market, ( so called "Hafen"-markt ) .
Places / Germany / Baden-Wurttemberg / Esslingen/ Ezelinga
since 800 this town received market rights from the Charlemagne*, aka Charles the Great,Carlomango, Karolus Magnus , Karl der Große.
(* " Charles I. "
At this time his reign was as great as the whole center of Europe – he can be called the Father of EUROPE )
SD Kartendaten retten
Click , &
Push F11 – Full – screen
© View LARGE on BLACK
For your Eyes only ©